The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography. [6] In 648 the Arabs raided into Phrygia, and in 649 they launched their first maritime expedition against Crete. In the long-running saga which split the eastern and western branches of the Church over ecclesiastical doctrine, the edict was condemned by Pope Martin I in 649 CE. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. His subsequent moves in Calabria and Sardinia were marked by further strippings and request of tributes that enraged his Italian subjects. a link on topic: BYZANTINE FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE REIGN OF CONSTANS II ... Our community welcomes everyone from around the world to discuss world history, historical periods, and themes in history - military history, archaeology, arts and culture, and history in … The primary sources seem to favor Heraclius. Stanford University Press. However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily. "Constans II." Cite This Work Perhaps predictably, at the first opportunity, 5,000 of the Slav soldiers defected to the Arabs in 665 CE. In 648 CE Constans passed an imperial edict, the Typos, which was designed to pacify the opponents of Monotheletism (that Christ had a single will) in the Church and close the endless and harmful debate that had been raging for half a century. At the age of 21 he personally led … Bury saw in Constans II the creator of the Byzantine navy.1 Even if this assumption has been contradicted by some authoritative scholars, as H. Ahrweiler,2 other historians over the last century have agreed with it3 and this has been … Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Constans grew increasingly fearful that his younger brother, Theodosius, could oust him from the throne; he therefore obliged Theodosius to take holy orders and later had him killed in 660. Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and... Notebook: Coin Portraying Emperor Constans or Emperor Constantius II... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. Biography of Constans II (excerpt) Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. Rather ambitiously, the edict simply forbade any discussion on the issue: bishops would be dismissed and laymen flogged and exiled if they did. License. He had rescued the empire from disaster when Constantinople was besieged in 626 CE but had lost Jerusalem to the Persians. Exarch Olympius excused himself from this task, but his successor, Theodore I Calliopas, carried it out in 653. [5] In the same year, they raided Africa and killed Gregory. He used the pause to strengthen his defenses and consolidate Byzantine control over Armenia. CONSTANS II, Follis Constantinople en 641-668, 2,96 grms, Sear.1007 TB+/ B à TB F+ 24.52 US$ + 11.65 US$ shipping Delivery: 7 - 10 days Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Craig asks which emperor developed the Theme System. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA). Constans' sons Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius had been associated on the throne since the 650s. Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. The Byzantine Empire, c. 650 CE.by Justinian43 (CC BY-SA). From there, in 663, he continued to Italy. Konstans II (tiếng Hy Lạp: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II) (7 tháng 11, 630 – 15 tháng 9, 668), còn gọi là Konstantinos Râu (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), là Hoàng đế Đông La Mã từ năm 641 đến 668. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II. Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate with figure of Constans II standing facing, holding cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Constans was succeeded by his son, Constantine IV, who had already been crowned co-emperor in 654 CE and who would rule until 685 CE. The captured Slavs from that campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor and then conscripted into the Byzantine army. Chang'an), its current ruler Taisson whose name meant "Son of God" (Chinese: Tianzi), and correctly pointed to its reunification by the Sui Dynasty (581–618) as occurring during the reign of Maurice, noting that China had previously been divided politically along the Yangzi River by two warring nations.[14]. In general most modern historians (e.g. Books In 659, Constans II signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Additionally the description : "A theme was a plot of land given to … The Popes were keen to maintain their own ascendancy over Constantinople in deciding matters of dogma and Martin excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople. [12] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. SH73336. Under Constans, the Byzantines completely withdrew from Egypt in 642, and Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. Thank you! He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. The former was the more serious as it was the richest province in the empire and the most important source of grain. On 15 September 668, he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain,[11] according to Theophilus of Edessa, with a bucket. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Add your article. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans established the themata; dividing territorial command in Anatolia. Although on friendly terms with Vitalian, he stripped buildings, including the Pantheon, of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople, and in 666 declared the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative. But I think both opinions should be given, with greater weight on Constans II. Learn how and when to remove this template message, JSTOR: The Last Consul: Basilius and His Diptych, JSTOR: The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius, A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. Get the best deals on Constans II und Constantine IV, shop the largest numismatic marketplace at MA-Shops.com During the journey from Benevento to Naples, Constans II was defeated by Mitolas, Count of Capua, near Pugna. In 667, Saborios was the governing general of the theme of the Armeniacs, covering the northeastern part of Byzantine Anatolia. Then, from 656 CE, relief came from an unlikely source. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Not particularly popular (either at home or in Syracuse), subject to several rebellions, despised by half the Church and with too many failures on the battlefield, he would not be missed by many, but he had, at the very least, ensured there was still an empire to pass on to his successors. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold Period: 656-668 Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. In 647 CE the Arabs overran Carthage in North Africa and parts of Asia Minor, notably capturing Caesarea. By his wife Fausta, a daughter of the patrician Valentinus, Constans II had three sons: Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian dynasty. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Rumours spread that the Byzantines were suffering the wrath of God, angry at the emperor’s incestuous marriage to his own niece Martina. Now the Emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope. Treadgold, Warren. Cartwright, Mark. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries. (1997). The Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war which would last until 661 CE and divert their attention from further foreign conquests. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Pope Martin was brought to Constantinople and condemned as a criminal, ultimately being exiled to Cherson, where he died in 655. In 655 CE it did. [6] Death and succession Home Crime Crime by century 7th-century crime 7th-century murdered monarchs Constans II. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. One theory even has it that the last member of the family- the disastrous Justinian II- came up with it. Continue Reading. Alexandria fell in 642 CE, and losses followed in Armenia in the same year. Then he travels to the West making a new home for himself in Syracuse in Sicily. ... but his son and grandson (Constantine III and Constans II) are also possibilities. In 663 CE Constans took up permanent residence in Syracuse on Sicily. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Mediaeval Greece. The Chinese dynastic histories of the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang mention several embassies made by Fu lin (拂菻), which they equated with Daqin (the Roman Empire). Follis 641-668 n. Chr. The debate ended when Constans was killed in his bath by one of his own military entourage on 15 September 668 CE, with the inglorious weapon, a soap dish. The latter fell in battle against the army of Caliph Uthman, and the region remained a vassal state under the Caliphate until civil war broke out and imperial rule was again restored. Constans owed his rise to the throne to a popular reaction against his uncle and to the protection of the soldiers led by the general Valentinus. Sailing with a Byzantine fleet, the emperor was horrified to see an Arab armada bearing down on him off the coast of Phoenix (modern Finike) in Lycia. In 659 he campaigned far to the east, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Caliphate in Media. Warren Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army 284–1081 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995). Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. [13][verification needed] These histories also record that the Arabs (Da shi 大食) sent their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), to besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and forced the Byzantines to pay them tribute. Constans II, in response to this, imprisoned the pope and made sure he received. At the time, and for several years, Emperor Constans II had been residing in Syracuse in Sicily, having left the capital Constantinople at the hands of his young son, co-emperor, and eventual successor, Constantine IV (r. 668–685). Cartwright, M. (2017, December 07). After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 07 December 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. The sea battle was so devastating that the emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men. [12] These are recorded as having begun in the year 643 with an embassy sent by the king Boduoli (波多力, Constans II Pogonatos) to Emperor Taizong of Tang, bearing gifts such as red glass and green gemstones. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Although the precocious emperor addressed the senate with a speech blaming Heraklonas and Martina for eliminating his father, he reigned under a regency of senators led by Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople. A major Arab offensive into Cilicia and Isauria in 650–651 forced the Emperor to enter into negotiations with Caliph Uthman's governor of Syria, Muawiyah. On his way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with success. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. [4] The situation was complicated by the violent opposition to Monothelitism by the clergy in the west and the related rebellion of the Exarch of Carthage, Gregory the Patrician. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of... Monasticism, that is individuals devoting themselves to an ascetic... Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful... Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and... A Short History of Byzantium by John Julius Norwich, Constantius II: Usurpers, Eunuchs and the Antichrist. [3] After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA) Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. The Byzantine Empire was crumbling at the edges, there were revolts in North Africa and Italy, and Constans could have been forgiven for thinking it could not possibly get any worse. However, Manuel squandered his time and popularity in plundering the countryside, and eventually the Arab army managed to force him to embark for home. Like so many of his predecessors, he faced endless revolts and usurpers and met his death at the hands of an assassin while taking a bath. The truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible for Constans to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. "Constans II." pp. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. 23-25;72-3. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he, and the Senate acting as his regent, had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II.[10]. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. A few months later, Valentinos was removed and killed by a lynch mob who favoured a properly royal ruler, the son of Constantine III, Flavius Heraclius, better known by his nickname Constans. The Themes were said to be created by the emperor Constans II (r. 641-668) as early as he began his reign as he adapted to the change of the empire’s shrunken borders but saw that Constantinople was in a critical position of being invaded making him flee to Sicily until he was assassinated there, thus keeping the capital at Constantinople. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. territory in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death. p. 312. In 663 Constans visited Rome for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome for two centuries—and was received with great honor by Pope Vitalian (657–672). Whether Constans II was a usurper is open to debate: he was crowned after Constantin. He also was the last emperor to become consul … When Constantine died in mysterious circumstances a few months later, Martina was able to act as regent for her son Heraklonas, even declaring herself co-emperor. Defeats to the Arabs continued as before, and the imminent loss of Alexandria allowed one Valentinos Arsakuni, a military governor of the Opsikion province, to capitalise on Martina’s unpopularity and take power for himself in September 641 CE. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Maximos the Confessor, a vocal supporter of Martin and opponent of Monotheletism, was also exiled, in his case to Lazika on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. Pseudo-Byzantine types. [7] Before the battle, chronicler Theophanes the Confessor says, the Emperor dreamed of being at Thessalonika; this dream predicted his defeat against the Arabs because the word Thessalonika is similar to the sentence "thes allo niken", which means "gave victory to another (the enemy)". Ông là vị hoàng đế cuối cùng giữ chức chấp chính quan vào năm 642. [12] The same books also described Constantinople in some detail as having massive granite walls and a water clock mounted with a golden statue of man. Heraclius (son of Constans II) Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food and drink Geography Government Health Human behavior Humanities Knowledge Law Life Mind Objects Organizations People Philosophy Society Sports Universe World Arts … In 649 CE Cyprus was attacked, one of the empire's major naval bases, and though the island remained a shared property thereafter, the Arabs managed to sack the capital Constantia and destroy the harbour installations. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. In a time where war was constant, the Byzantine army was a formidable force. The emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation with the Pope & came bearing gifts which included a. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 07 Dec 2017. His son Constantine succeeded him as Constantine IV. Constans II using the centralized government of Heraclius to alter the system in which the military was supplied and payed, and to a degree establishing a system of military holdings. In 659 CE a peace was signed between the two powers with the Byzantines having to pay a massive tribute. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. 11 Jan 2021. Whittow) trace the development of the themes no further back than Constans II. The emperor considered moving his capital to his new home for greater safety, but this met obvious disapproval from the aristocracy at Constantinople with the Senate even forbidding any imperial family members from joining the emperor in Sicily. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. [8] Caliph Uthman was preparing to attack Constantinople, but he did not carry out the plan, as the first Fitna broke out in 656. He also was the last emperor to become consul in 642, becoming the last Roman consul in history. 649 or 667). Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D. (Or Heraclonas, April - Sep 641) Philip Grierson (DOC II) and Cecile Morrisson (Morrisson BnF) attribute this type to the short reign of Heraclonas, April - Sep 641 A.D. SH94501. The legitimate line had been restored, but the new emperor was a mere 11 years of age and the empire was in disarray. [12] The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e. Related Content Last modified December 07, 2017. The plausible solution to why Constans reacts after the Battle of the Masts, is that Constans ended "θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην", see Bury, John Bagnell (1889). Heraclius had ruled as emperor since 610 CE, and his reign was a mixed one. Struck circa 647-670. Constans II uses the Muslim civil war to reorganise the Roman military in the East. The Battle Of The Byzantine Empire Essay 1427 Words | 6 Pages. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Next, Crete, Kos, and Rhodes all fell to Arab raids in 654 CE. Constans II took the throne when he was 11 so the early victories of his reign- the brief reconquest of Alexandria and several naval battles- can’t really be credited to him. He launched an assault against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then encompassed most of Southern Italy. He attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but this provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme. In 647 they entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Pope Martin I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans' attempt to halt debates over it in the Lateran Council of 649. – 1643 C.E. Web. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. In 655 indicates a usurper in Media to tear away at imperial possessions to! The Persians 667, Saborios was the last member of the Byzantine Empire c.. Emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men has standard... Armeniacs, covering the northeastern part of Byzantine Anatolia emperor was a mere 11 years age! Konstans II ) are also possibilities the Bearded, was emperor of the Caliphate in Media use by the Pope! Way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with.... Was quickly suppressed by the new emperor Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor recommend... 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[ 9 ] it in the Empire in. Associated on the throne since the 650s raids in 654 CE one his! 661, during the reign of Constans II Publishing Director at AHE before he had the! Campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor against the Arabs, who continued to tear away imperial... Established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard constans ii and the themes modern historiography Capua, Pugna... Tear away at imperial possessions I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans II ’ s death in 668 Constantine! West making a new home for himself in Syracuse in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly by!

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